The Coherence Theory of Truth

“Essentially, a coherence theory of truth is a circular chain of propositions which may or may not actually represent reality.  In addition, it must contain no contradictions within itself, that is, each proposition within one’s belief system must entail the other.  However, this is not to say that one’s “coherent” system of belief will not contradict another’s. In this sense, truth is relative, varying from person to person, because it is not based upon any absolute standard; rather, it is based upon the coherence or consistency of one’s thought.”  in the essay TRUTH IS A MANby J. Matthan Brown

The Pragmatic Theory of Truth

“Pragmatism . . . must be formulated relativistically, since whether it is useful to believe a proposition evidently varies from one believer to another.”   Schmitt, 79.

Postmodern Theories of Truth

“Postmodern Theories of truth can be broken down into three basic categories:  Phenomenological, Structural, and PragmaticWhat can be said with certainty is that postmodernists reject the correspondence theory of truth.  In their view, “truth is relative to a linguistic community that shares the same narrative.” In other words, truth is determined by one’s community (i.e. culture, language, social environment).  This may be represented by any one of the afore mentioned theories, as long as they are consistent with a subjective view of reality.” Ibid, 146.

“Like the coherent and pragmatic theories, postmodern theories are built upon antirealism and nominalism.  Even more foundational, is their rejection of absolutes or dichotomous thinking. Dichotomous thinking occurs when, “someone divides a range of phenomena into two groups and goes on to claim that one is better than the other.”Examples of dichotomous thinking include distinctions between good and bad, right and wrong, or true and false.”   Ibid., 146.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights


Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,

Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people,

Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law,

Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations,

Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,

Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms,

Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge,

Now, Therefore THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.

Sílvia Cruells

Sílvia Cruells (b. 1986, Barcelona) is a Catalan multidisciplinary artist that works under the name of lafloristeria, an art laboratory established in Lisbon since 2016. 
Lafloristeria researches about architecture and nature, through several artifacts and installations. She is interested in discovering hidden layers of our reality in order to understand our Real existence, mainly regarded with the evolution of nature and architecture.

In this exhibition, Sílvia will explore the limits in between the legal legality and the legitimate illegality through different art pieces.

The universal manifesto of human rights: The universal manifesto of human rights is a graphico-poetic reflection of the real contradictions of the real application of the Universal declaration of human rights.

Mirror me: Which is the limit in between the legal and the illegal? The installation tries to express the no real limit in between legal and illegal, besides the language. It also establishes a parallelism in between the colors of the Spanish flag and the fact that after a long time, a country in Europe jailed several politicians for their ideas.

Borders without borders: Is a serie of photos taken in august 2011 in the border between Spain and France. More than 15 years after the opening of the borders and more than 40 years after the death of Franco the symbolism of this border is still present nowadays. Thousands of republicans crossed it during the civil war, seeking refuge in France. Walter Benjamin, the german philosopher committed suicide in an hotel in the last catalan village of Portbou, where he stopped on it’s way to Portugal, once he realised that the Spanish government will deport him back to Germany

Archive of facts: Inspired by the Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace by John Perry Barlow, the piece tries to draw the space on what it had become cyberspace. Situated in between the territory of the politics, the one that we believe to be our real frame, and the world wide web, the system that lets all the global economic lobbies to move their powers around without most of us even realizing.

Wearing legal constitutions: The dress reflects the hypocrisy of our daily acts. Even choosing what we were we are validating this system that violates most of the articles of the Universal declaration of human rights.

Tiago Lopes

Born, raised and studied in Faro in environments that generated a taste for arts. He went to lisbon to study architecture, finished the master’s degree and guaranteed its mark being finalist in one of the competitions with more academic value, at national level. The lobbies and times of crisis around this system only profitable for some, has made them join a team of architects to develop artistic works related to perception.

Box of shame is a direct criticism to the political system that governs the society and prevent the freedom to choose. It is a reflection of the situations occurred in Catalonia, where the voice of the people went beyond the written manifesto, is a proof that freedom as a right exists. The pyramid shape symbolizes the hierarchy of society and the weight of the strongest, in particular the state of Spain. The hands symbolizes the struggle and the willpower of the people to have the right to true democracy.


Raquel Lima

Raquel Lima is a poet and spokenword artist living in Lisbon, Portugal, country where she has participated in several festivals, namely the Festival Silêncio, FOLIO and Palavras Andarilhas.

She has been invited to countless events of poetry, literature, oral tradition and spokenword in Italy, France, Poland, United Kingdom, Belgium, Brazil, Estonia, Spain, Holland, Sweden, Switzerland, Sao Tome and Principe and recently Angola, Mozambique and Mexico.

She has organized poetry workshops in schools, associations, festivals and in the scope of residence programs, with emphasis on the Poetry and Gender Workshop held in Tartu (Estonia) and São Paulo (Brazil), the artistic residence Portugal Contemporâneo with Sao Tome and Principe and the general coordination of PortugalSLAM – International Festival and Platform of Poetry and Performance de 2013 a 2017. She has published poems in several anthologies and fanzines, translated into several languages and has collaborated with different musicians and artists (TAPETE, GUME, Tsjinlûd, MpexPhado, Lisbon Poetry Orchestra, etc.) in search for sonorities and languages that dialogue with his poetry.

She graduated in Art Studies at the School of Arts of the University of Lisbon (FLUL), currently works at the Comparative Studies Center of the same university and she is a PhD student in the Post-Colonialism and Global Citizenship Program of the Center for Social Studies and the University of Coimbra, Faculty of Economics.

The presented poem is called ‘’Inner pump’’

Kiluanje Liberdade

Kiluanje Liberdade is a filmmaker, born in 1976, Angola.

The work is titled The noise of repression.

Luaty Beirão

Henrique Luaty da Silva Beirão is a Portuguese-Angolan rapper recognized by his activism on behalf of freedom of expression, democracy and anti-corruption fight.

The work is titled Designed Identity.”